Africa and its European and Asian environment, by Jean Jolly

Hitherto unpublished maps showing the simultaneous development of Africa, Europe and Asia



Prehistory Prehistory From 1350 to 1450 (french only) From 1350 to 1450
(french only)
1914 - 1918
(french only)
1914 - 1918 (french only) Drugs traffic (french only) Drugs, weapons
and medicine traffic
(french only)

Table of 50 maps (28x28cm format)

  1. From the origins of man to the populating of Eurasia
  2. Vth-IIIrd millennium B.C.
  3. IInd millennium B.C.
  4. 1000-750 B.C. – The great proto-historical migrations - Indo-Europeans and Indo-Iranians, Sea Peoples and Dorian, Phoenician trading posts, Southern and Oriental Kushites, Centro-Sudanese and Nilotics, Proto-Bantus and Bantus, Proto-Khoïsan, Indonesians in the Indian Ocean, trans-Saharan routes of the Garamantes, Hittites and the propagation of iron
  5. 700-400 B.C. – The black pharaoh Taharka the Great, Berbers (Garamants, Nasamons, Toubous, Gétules and Numides), Axum and the caravan kingdoms of South Arabia, first Iron Age in the region of the Great Lakes, achemenid Persians, Scythes, Carthaginians, Greeks, Romans and Celts
  6. 300-44 B.C. – Carthaginians and Hannibal, Berbers (Masinissa, Syphax, Gétules and Garamants), Roman Republic, Greater Greece, Ptolemy's, Seleucids, Kingdom of Bactriane, Yué-Tché, Kushites and Axumites, Scythes and Parthians, Indian Empire of Açoka, Indonesian navigators
  7. 44-IIIrd century A.D. – Rome and its empire, Roman ports in the Indian ocean, Juba II and the Berbers, German, Slav and Indo-Iranian tribes in central and eastern Europe, Napata-Méroë and Axum, the arsacid Parthians, the Kushans, the Hiong-Nou Huns and the Chinese empire of the Han, the Indian kingdom of Catavahana, Nok and the beginning of the migration of the Proto-Bantu, Indonesian migration towards East Africa
  8. 350-420 – Roman Eastern and Western Empires subject to Barbarian invasions, the Christian kingdoms of Nubia (Nobatia, Makura and Aloa) and the Axum empire, the expansion of the Himyar in Southern Arabia, the Sassanid Persians, the march of the Huns to the West and South, the Gupta kingdom, the birth of Ghana, the town of Djenné-Djéno, the Bantu migration
  9. 420-480 – The Attila Empire, the Germans in Western Europe (Visigoths in Aquitaine, Suevians in the North-West of Spain and in Portugal, Angles, Jutes and Saxons in Great Britain…) and in North Africa (Genseric Vandals), the Berber kingdoms, strengthening of Ghana, Christians from Nubia and Axum, reflux of Khoïsan towards austral Africa before the Bantu, the Sassanid Persians against the Huns, the Guptas, the Toba kingdom
  10. 480-570 – The Eastern Empire against the Barbarians now masters of Europe and of the western Mediterranean, the Christian and Romanised Berber kingdoms of North Africa, the Christian Nubia and Axum in Arabia, the arrival of the Avars, Ghana, Djenné-Djéno, Bantu and Khoïsan, Rhodesian farmers and miners, the Sassanid Persians and the Guptas against white Huns, China spreads Westward
  11. 600-660 – The Arabs conquer Egypt, the Middle East and Persia, retreat of the Byzantine Empire, the Christians of Nubia and Axum cut off from Constantinople, the Djédars in the Maghreb, Ghana, Bantu and Khoïsan, the Francs in Gaul, the Visigoths in Spain, the Avars in central and eastern Europe, the Turks in central Asia, the breakup of the Gupta kingdom, Dravidian kingdoms, Tibetans
  12. 660-740 – The apex of the Arab empire, Ghana, Djenné-Djéno and Songhaï, Bantu (Sinoïa and Zhizo in Zambezi, Luba in the valley of the Upemba, etc.), the Eastern Empire against the Arabs, the Avars, the Bulgarians and the Lombards, the Slavs between the Baltic and the Black Sea, the Chinese empire of Tang on the defensive, the end of the divided Gupta kingdom, the Indonesians in Madagascar
  13. 750-814 – Charlemagne against the Umayyad emirate of Spain and the Avars, the Lombards and the Vikings, Constantine and Irene against the Arabs, the Bulgarians and the Swedish Vikings, new Finno-Ugrian migration towards the Baltic and the arrival of the Magyars in eastern Europe, apex of the Abbassid Empire with Harun el-Rachid, the Norman expansion in the Atlantic, in the Mediterranean and in eastern Europe, Ghana, Songhaï and Saharan Berbers, Bantu, Arab merchants and Indonesians in the Indian Ocean, Tibet, China of the Tang
  14. 815-915 – The Abbasids victims of the Karmats and Turks, the Byzantine and Nubian Christians on the defensive, Arab kingdoms (aghlabids) and Berbers (rostémids, sofrits, idrissids and Sidjilmasa) from the Maghreb, Ghana against the Berbers sanhadja, Songhaï, Yoruba, Christian kingdoms in the Sudan (Kanem and Tunjour) and the Nile Valley (Dongola, Aloa and Axum), Tulunids Turks in Egypt and the Middle-East, Bantu from the Congo (Téké, Luba), from Angola and from Zambezi (Sinoïa, Zhizo, Leopard's Kopje), first Slav principalities in Kiev and Novgorod, Normans in Russia and in the Mediterranean
  15. 920-1050 – Arab and non-Arab Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe, Germanic and Slav Europe, Empire of Iarosolav the Wise, the Vikings in Iceland, Greenland and in North America, Nordic kingdom of Cnut the Great, the Normans in the Mediterranean, Byzantine Empire of Basil II, Bulgarian Empire of Tsar Samuel, China of Song, Chola Empire, Bantu of Congo (Téké, Luba), Angola and Zambezi (Sinoïa, Leopard's Kopje and Goumanié), Zimbabwe and Goumanié, Apex of Ghana, Songhaï, birth of Mali, Yoruba kingdom, Christian kingdoms of Sudan in the Nile, the Chola Empire in India and Indonesia, new Indonesian migration towards Madagascar
  16. 1050-1150 – The Murabits in the Maghreb and in Spain, the expansion of Kanem-Bornu in central Sahara, Sosso, Mossi, Songhaï and Haussa in Sudanese Africa, Yoruba in the Gulf of Benin, Greater Zimbabwe, the Normans in England, in Sicily and in North Africa, The Crusades in the Middle East, Empire of Iziaslav Ist, Turkish push westwards (sultanate of Roum in Anatolia, Seljuks in the Middle-East, Ghaznevids in Afghanistan, etc.), new retreat of the Byzantine Empire and the nilotic Christians, zagoué dynasty in Ethiopia, the end of the Fatimid's in Egypt, the China of Song, the Chola empire, Greater Zimbabwe, Arabs and Indonesians in Madagascar.
  17. 1150-1240 – The Muwahids Berbers in the Maghreb as well as in Spain, the Plantagenets in Aquitaine and in Normandy, the Teutonic knights against the Baltic Slavs, the Slav Republics of Novgorod, Rostov-Souzdal, Kiev, the Kurd Saladin in Egypt and the Middle-East, the Mongols of Genghis Khan at the gates of Europe, the Kanem-Bornu dominate the Sahara and central Sudan, struggle for influence between Sosso de Soumangourou and Mali de Soundiata, the sultanate of Delhi stretches into central India and threatens the Chola empire
  18. 1240-1350 – The Mongols in Asia and in Europe, the Republic of Novgorod and the Teutonic knights, the France of Saint Louis, of Philippe-Auguste and of Philippe le Bel against England, Marinids, Abdelwadids and the hafsid caliphate in the Maghreb, the Mamlukes in Egypt and in the Middle East, apex of Mali de Kankan Moussa and of Mansa Souleyman, Mossi, Songhaï, Gobir, Yoruba, Benin and Igbo-Ukwu, Kanem, Boulala, Wadaï, Mameluke Empire of Cairo, end of the Christian kingdom of Dongola, Aloa under pressure from the tribes of the desert, Axum, Greater Zimbabwe, Hova and Antalaotes in Madagascar, sultanate of Delhi
  19. 1350-1490 – Tamerlan dominates Asia, the Chinese fleet of the eunuch admiral Chen Ho takes control of the Arab trading posts of the African coast line, the Portuguese in Brazil and on the African Atlantic coast line, the France of Charles VII against the England of Edward III, the Aragon in the Baleares, in Sardinia, in Sicily and in the South of Italy, end of the kingdom of Granada, Marinids and Hafsids share the Maghreb, Mali in decline, the Touareg dominate western Sahara and the Boulala come to power in central Sudan, Ethiopia under threat from the Muslims, the united kingdom of Poland and Lithuania control the Ukraine
  20. 1490-1600 – Charles-Fifth (Holy Roman Emperor) in Europe, in North Africa and in America, Sweden becomes a great Nordic power, the Portuguese sail around Africa from the South and save Ethiopia from a Muslim invasion, The Ottoman Empire at its apex against the Austro-Spanish and the Russia of Ivan the Terrible, the empire of Tekrour destroyed by the Renegades and the Andalusians of the Sultan of Morocco, the Bornou take over in Kanem, Yoruba, Congo, Ndongo, Mutapa, Changamiré, the Indonesians in Madagascar, the Persia of Sefevids, the empire of the Great Mogul dominates India, the Vijayanagar, Chian of the Ming, Turkish khanates in central and eastern Europa and Asia
  21. 1600-1700 – The Europeans set out to conquer the world, the Ottomans against the Spanish in the western Mediterranean, the Moroccans in the Sudan, the slave-trade in the direction of the Americas and Asia, the kingdoms of the sahelo-sudanese zone (Bambara, Macina, Songhaï, Haussa, Bornu, Baguirmi, Wadaï, Darfur, Kordofan, Sennar), the kingdoms of the African coast line (Achanti, Oyo, Congo, Benguela, Nguni), the countries of equatorial and austral Africa (Lunda, Luba, Butua, Karanga, Maravi), a pirate Republic in Madagascar, the Persia of the Sefevids, the Mogul empire of Auranbeg, the Manchu empire of Qing
  22. 1700-1730 – Great-Britain gains power in Europe and throughout the world. Succession War in Spain and North War, Moulay Ismail in Morocco, the pirates leave Madagascar for the Sainte-Marie Island
  23. 1730-1795 – France, Spain, Great-Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, first dividing up of Poland, The Ottoman Empire in difficulty against Austria, the Russia of Peter the Great and Spain, the Alaouites succeed the Saadiens in Morocco, Touareg and Bambara fight at Timbuktu, wars between the slave-trading countries of central Sudan (Bornu, Baguirmi, Wadaï, Darfur), the Lunda dominate centre-austral Africa, Luba, Lozi, Butua, Manica, Maravi, the Boers progress towards the East, Madagascar divided up among European pirates, Betsimisaraka, Mérina and Sakalava, Persia threatened by the Russians and Ottomans, decline of the Mogul empire against the Maratha empire, French and English in competition in India, Manchu China receives the Kalmuks
  24. 1795-1804 – The French Revolution modifies the balance of power in Africa and Asia, the British come up against the Boers in the Cape and push the French out of India, the French provisionally occupy Egypt, the Russians against the Ottomans in the Caucasus and in the Black Sea, the Peul become influential in western Africa, the lunda Empire sells slaves to the Arabs and Portuguese, Butua, Karanga, Maravi, the Nguni win out between Mozambique and the Boers, the Merina take control of the central plateau central of Madagascar, Persia of the Kajars, the Marathas Empire, China
  25. 1804-1814 – The French Empire against the coalitions of European monarchies, the Ottoman Empire is contested in its African and European territories, the Wahabits take power in Mecca, the Russia of Alexander Ist pursues its expansion in Asia and the Caucasus, the Peuls (Fulani) take over in Sudanese Africa, wars between slave-trading states of central Sudan (Bornu, Baguirmi, Wadaï, Darfur), Radama Ist reinforces the power of the Merina, the English take over French trading posts throughout the world, settle in the Cape and extend their presence in India, The Chinese Qing empire, The Birman Kubaung Empire
  26. 1815-1830 – France gets another foothold for itself in Africa, Prussia increases its influence within the German Confederation, Great Britain becomes the dominant European power, the Ottomans are defeated at Lépante, Mahomet Ali takes power in Egypt with his Albanese troops, peule expansion in Sudanese Africa, the lunda Empire, Luba, the British at the Cape and in India, the Zulus of Tchaka and his lieutenants forge an empire in austral Africa, the Merina of Radama Ist conquer most of the peoples of Madagascar, the Qing Empire
  27. 1830-1860 – The French land in Algeria, the Ottomans recognise the independence of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia and abandon Egypt to Mahomet Ali who conquers the Sudan, the Peuls dominate western Africa, the Zulus pursue their expansion in austral and centre-austral Africa, the British come up against the Boers and Zulus, the Merina kingdom confirms its power in Madagascar, The British Empire in India, the Empire of the Qing
  28. 1860-1885 – European expansion (France, Great Britain, Portugal, Italy, then Germany) in Africa, defeat of the Austro-Hungarians by Germany at Sadowa, constant decline of the Ottoman Empire, apex of the Peuls in Sudanese Africa, theocratic Empire of the Mahdi in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Arab slave-trading empires in central and eastern Africa, Madagascar unified by the Merina, ephemeral Empire of Yacub Beg within the confines of the China of the Qing
  29. 1885-1913 – Conquest and dividing up of Africa by the Europeans, resistance to the occupation and to the establishment of the British, French, Belgian, Spanish, Italian, German and Ethiopian empires, pursuance of Russian expansion in Asia, China under the Qing
  30. 1913 – Assessment of European colonization on the eve of the First World War
  31. 1914-1918 – The First World War
  32. 1918-1939 – Africa, Europe and Asia between the world wars
  33. 1939 – Assessment of European colonization on the eve of the Second World War
  34. 1939-1942 – The Second World War in Africa, Europe and Asia (German, Japanese and Italian military successes)
  35. 1942-1944 – The Second World War : the counter-offensive of the western allies
  36. 1945-1954 – Africa in the period following the Second World War and before the decolonisation (with the names of the African, European and Asian heads of state)
  37. 1954-1959 – Unambiguous warning reprimand from Washington and Moscow to the Europeans
  38. 1960 – Assessment of the colonization on the eve of independence
  39. 1960-1969 – The first years of independence
  40. 1970-1989 – Return to political realism
  41. 1989-2001 – Globalisation dominated by the Americans
  42. 2001-2008 – Multiform contestation of the American order
  43. The great world religions
  44. The migrations of the XXIst century
  45. The great endemic illnesses in the world
  46. Drugs, arms and medicine trafficking
  47. The major regional groupings
  48. The main economic resources
  49. Gross national product, big towns and big commercial ports
  50. Human development and the heads of state in office in 2008
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